Tony King is a lecturer in archaeology at the University of Winchester. He has excavated extensively in Britain and abroad, including Hayling Island, Meonstoke Roman Villa, Pompeii, Leptis Magna and Volubilis. He specialises in faunal remains and has studied many excavated assemblages, including those from Pompeii.
My BA was gained at the Institute of Archaeology, London, in 1975, specialising in Roman archaeology, and after a year working in the Air Photo Unit of the Royal Commission on Historical Monuments, I went on to PhD research in Roman samian ware, also at the Institute. This was eventually completed in 1985. Meanwhile, I started lecturing at Winchester in a part-time capacity in 1980, and at the same time teaching for the University of London.
In 1986, I took over responsibility for the archaeology modules within the History degree programme, eventually bringing archaeology to single Honours status in the early 1990s. At the same time, Archaeology became a separate subject group in the college (as it was then), and I became its head, a responsibility I continued to hold until 2006, when I became Associate Dean in the Faculty. I was appointed Professor in 1997.
This research interest arose out of an opportunity in 1975 to excavate a Romano-Celtic temple on Hayling Island, Hampshire. It had a preceding Iron Age religious structure, one of only a small number known from western Europe. The excavation project is still continuing, and the most recent field season took place in 2001. Publications arising from the excavation so far include interim reports and more specialized studies; the most recent article (King & Soffe 2007) has a full bibliography concerning the Hayling temple.
In addition to work directly connected with the excavation, a considerable amount of research has been undertaken on other aspects of Romano-Celtic religion. This includes a gazetteer of temples in continental Europe (Horne & King 1980), a reassessment of Silchester 'church' (King 1983), a discussion of the emergence of Romano-Celtic religion and temples (King 1990; 2007), surveys of the deposition of artefacts, coins and animal bones on temple sites (King 2005; 2007), as well as the organisation of conferences on the subject in 1984 (Henig & King 1986), 2004 and 2005 (Haeussler & King 2007). I am a member of the international project to make a corpus of inscriptions relating to Celtic deities, Fontes Epigraphici Religionis Celticae Antiquae, organized by the Austrian Academy of Sciences.
Interest in this subject arose originally from an undergraduate dissertation for the Institute of Archaeology, London, on bones from Roman Britain (King 1978). My work has specialised in studying the diet and animal husbandry of the western Roman Empire. This research has steadily expanded with the analysis of individual site assemblages, including Settefinestre villa (King 1985), Setif, Algeria (King 1991), Naples (King 1994), Celti, Spain (King 2000; 2001) and Pompeii (King 2002) and in comparative surveys (King 1984; 1988; 1991; 1999a; 1999b; 2001).
Ceramics and Archaeological Chronologv
This research interest has revolved around study of the chronology and typology of Roman samian ware, undertaken for a PhD completed in 1985. The doctoral research was a detailed examination of the dating scheme for this type of pottery in its late phase of production in the 2nd and 3rd centuries AD. A revised dating was produced that lengthened the chronology of the pottery into the 3rd century, as a result of which various archaeological sites (and historical interpretations) stand in need of revision chronologically.
General aspects of late Roman chronology have been explored as a result of jointly organising and publishing a conference on the Roman West in the Third Century (King & Henig 1981). A general survey of Roman pottery from an artistic viewpoint has also been published in a volume that is one of the standard textbooks on Roman art (King 1983). At a more detailed level, several excavation assemblages of samian ware have been examined (King 1991; King & Millett 1993; 2006). An article on the probable ancient usage of the term 'samia' has been published (King 1980) and I have contributed to the debate about the nature of samian ware (terra sigillata) in the medieval period (King 1984). Currently, work is underway on the chronology of coin-loss in the 3rd century in the north-west provinces.
I have been involved in fieldwork in Italy since 1976, participating in excavations, field surveys and artefact study sessions for a number of projects. This involvement has developed into participation at site director level for a major investigation of the Roman/Medieval transition in the region to the north of Rome, centred on the excavation of the site at Monte Gelato, Lazio, 1986-90, jointly with the late Dr Tim Potter of the British Museum (Potter & King 1997).
Interest in Gaul stems from my PhD work on samian pottery, for which an extensive study tour of museums was undertaken in 1977. In addition, the Gallic connections of the Hayling Island temple fostered this interest, and also led to a study tour sponsored by the British Academy in 1982. It was welcome, therefore, to have the opportunity to write a full synthesis of current knowledge of Roman Gaul and Germany, as a result of a commission by a publisher (King 1990). Developments from the book have been further work on Gallic small towns (King 1995) and future articles on population estimates and the chronology of the pottery industry.
Several aspects of the research interests referred to above have influenced the course of Romano-British studies, notably the Hayling Island excavations (now an accepted part of any discussion of Romano-British religion), and research into faunal remains. As well as these, excavations of the Roman villa site at Meonstoke, Hants, conducted as undergraduate training exercises 1986-91, have uncovered an extremely well-preserved fallen wall, which has enabled a new and detailed reconstruction of this type of villa building to be prepared (King 1996). Valuable assistance to the excavation was given by the British Museum, where part of the fallen wall is now displayed.
More recently, the University of Winchester has excavated two more villa sites, as part of the training for undergraduates, at Yarford, Somerset, 2003-5 and Dinnington, Somerset, 2005-7. Both have significant contributions to make to villa studies, and have revealed fine mosaics of art-historical importance (King 2005).
Archaeology in Hampshire
I have been actively excavating in Hampshire since 1976, directing excavations at Hayling Island temple, Meonstoke villa, South Wonston Iron Age/Roman settlement and Hensting Roman settlement. All these sites have contributed to our understanding of the region in the Iron Age and Roman periods.
A future project in connection with the local region is the intended preparation of a book on Central Southern England in the Roman period, which will take the perspective of assessing its place in the economy and society of the western Roman Empire.
Listing and indexing are an aspect of scholarship that I regard as an important service to the academic community. I have prepared small-scale listings of dissertations and journal articles, but by far the most significant contribution in this field has been a 7,500 entry select bibliography of British and Irish archaeology, covering all aspects of the subject (King 1994).
Books and monographs: authored and/or edited
King, A. C. & Henig, M. (ed.) 1981 The Roman West in the Third Century (BAR Int 109), Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
King, A. C. 1982 The Archaeology of the Roman Empire, London: Hamlyn, New York: Crescent (reprinted 1988, London: Magna Books).
Blagg, T. F. C. & King, A. C. (ed.) 1984 Military and Civilian in Roman Britain (BAR 136), Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
King, A. C. 1985 The Decline of Samian Ware Manufacture in the North West provinces of the Roman Empire, Univ. London PhD Diss.
King, A. C. 1986 Archeologia dell'Impero Romano, Rome: La Scuola. (Italian translation of Archaeology of the Roman Empire, 1982.)
Henig, M. & King, A. C. (ed.) 1986 Pagan Gods and Shrines of the Roman Empire, Oxford: Oxford University Committee for Archaeology.
King, A. C. 1990 Roman Gaul and Germany, London: British Museum Publications, Berkeley, Cal.: California University Press.
King, A. C. 1994 British and Irish Archaeology: a bibliographical guide (History and Related Disciplines Select Bibliographies Series), Manchester: Manchester University Press.
Potter, T. W. & King, A. C. 1997 Excavations at the Mola di Monte Gelato. A Roman and Medieval Settlement in South Etruria, London: British School at Rome Archaeological Monograph 11.
Haeussler, R. & King, A. C. (ed.) 2007 Continuity and Innovation in Religion in the Roman West, Portsmouth, RI: JRA Supplementary Series, 2 vols.
Chapters and contributions to edited works and excavation reports (excluding short contributions)
Downey, R., King, A. C. & Soffe, G., 1980 The Hayling Island temple and religious connections across the Channel, in W. Rodwell (ed.), Temples, Churches and Religion: Recent Research in Roman Britain (BAR 77), Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 289-304.
Horne, P. & King, A. C. 1980 Romano-Celtic temples in continental Europe: a gazetteer of those with known plans, in W. Rodwell (ed.), Temples, Churches and Religion: Recent Research in Roman Britain (BAR 77), Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 369-555.
King, A. C. 1980 Mammal bones from the Upper Thames Street section, in C. Hill, M. Millett and T. Blagg, The Roman Riverside Wall and Monumental Arch in London, London: London and Middlesex Archaeological Society, 83-7.
King, A. C. 1981 The decline of samian ware manufacture in the North West provinces: problems of chronology and interpretation, in A. King and M. Henig (ed.), The Roman West in the Third Century (BAR Int 109), Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 55-78.
King, A. C. 1982 The animal bones, in P. Bennett, S. Frere and S. Stow, Excavations at Canterbury Castle (The Archaeology of Canterbury 1), Maidstone: Kent Archaeological Society, 193-205.
King, A. C. 1983 Pottery, in M. Henig (ed.), A Handbook of Roman Art, Oxford: Phaidon, chap. 8.
King, A. C. 1984 Animal bones and the dietary identity of military and civilian groups in Roman Britain, Germany and Gaul, in T. Blagg and A. King (ed.), Military and Civilian in Roman Britain (BAR 136), Oxford: British Archaeological Reports, 187-217.
King, A. C. 1985 I resti animali; i mammiferi, i rettili e gli anfibi, in A. Carandini et al., Settefinestre. Una villa schiavistica nell'Etruria romana, Rome: Panini, vol. 2, 278-300.
King, A. C. 1986 Animal bones from site DE/DF, in A. McWhirr, Houses in Roman Cirencester, Cirencester: Cirencester Excavation Committee, 142-52.
King, A. C. 1986 Animal bones, pp. 164-9 in T. Rook, 'The Roman villa site at Dicket Mead, Lockleys, Welwyn', Hertfordshire Archaeology 9, 79-175.
King, A. C. 1988 Villas and animal bones, in K. Branigan and D. Miles (ed.), The Economies of Romano-British Villas, Sheffield: Dept. Archaeology and Prehistory, University of Sheffield, 51-9.
King, A. C. 1988 Estudi de les restes faunístiques, in A. Roure i Bonaventura et al., La Vil.la Romana de Vilauba (Camós), Girona: Centre d'Investigacions Arqueològiques de Girona, 95-6.
King, A. C. 1988 Animal bones and shells, in T.B. James and A.M. Robinson, Clarendon Palace: the history and archaeology of a Medieval palace and hunting lodge near Salisbury, Wiltshire, London: Society of Antiquaries, 260-5.
King, A. C. 1990 The emergence of Romano-Celtic religion, in T. Blagg and M. Millett (ed.), The Early Roman Empire in the West, Oxford: Oxbow Books, 220-41.
King, A. C. 1991 The date of the stone defences of Roman Bitterne, in V. Maxfield and M. Dobson (ed.), Roman Frontier Studies 1989, Exeter: Exeter University Dept of History, 108-10.
King, A. C. 1991 Animal bones, in E. Fentress (ed.), Fouilles de Sétif 1977-1984 (5th Supplément à la Bulletin d'Archéologie Algérienne), Algiers, 247-58.
King, A. C. 1991 Food production and consumption - meat, in R.F.J. Jones (ed.), Britain in the Roman period: recent trends, University of Sheffield: J.R. Collis Publications, 15-20.
King, A. C. & Soffe, G. 1991 Hayling Island, in R.F.J. Jones (ed.), Britain in the Roman period: recent trends, University of Sheffield: J.R. Collis Publications, 111-13.
King, A. C. & Potter, T. W. 1992 Mola di Monte Gelato in the early Middle Ages: an interim report on the excavations 1986-9, in E. Herring et al. (ed.), Papers of the Fourth Conference of Italian Archaeology, London: Accordia Research Centre, vol. 4, 165-76.
King, A. C. & Millett, M. 1993 Samian ware, in P.J. Casey and J.L. Davies, Excavations at Segontium (Caernarfon) Roman Fort, 1975-1979, London: Council for British Archaeology Research Report 90, 234-49.
King, A. C. & Soffe, G. 1994 The Iron Age and Roman temple on Hayling Island, in A. P. Fitzpatrick and E. L. Morris (ed.), The Iron Age in Wessex: recent work, Salisbury: Trust for Wessex Archaeology, 114-16.
King, A. C. & Soffe, G. 1994 Recherches récentes sur les temples romano-celtiques de Grande-Bretagne. L'exemple de Hayling Island, in C. Goudineau, I Fauduet and G. Coulon (ed.), Les Sanctuaires de Tradition indigène en Gaule romaine; Actes du Colloque d'Argentomagus, Paris: Editions Errance, 33-48.
King, A. C. 1994 Mammiferi, in P. Arthur (ed.), Il Complesso Archeologico di Carminiello ai Mannesi, Napoli (scavi 1983-1984), Lecce: Universita di Lecce Dipartimento di Beni Culturali (Collana del Dipartimento 7), Congedo Editore, 367-406.
King, A. C. 1995 Secondary urban centres in Gaul, in A. E. Brown (ed.), Roman Small Towns in Eastern England and Beyond, Oxford: Oxbow Monograph 52, 183-92.
King, A. C. 1996 The south-east façade of Meonstoke aisled building, in P. Johnson and I. Haynes (ed.), Architecture in Roman Britain, York: CBA Research Report 94, 56-69.
King, A. C. 1997 Animal and human bones from fieldwalking, 1989-1994, in C. Gerrard and M. Aston (ed.), The Shapwick Project: an archaeological, historical and topographical study. The Seventh Report, Bristol: University of Bristol, Department of Continuing Education, 121-34.
King, A. C. 1999 Animals and the Roman army: the evidence of animal bones, in A. Goldsworthy and I. Haynes (ed.), The Roman Army as a Community (JRA Suppl. 34), Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 139-50.
King, A. C. 2000 The animal bones, in S. Keay, J. Creighton and J. Remesal Rodriguez, Celti (Peñaflor): the archaeology of a Hispano-Roman town in Baetica. Survey and Excavations 1987-1992 (Univ. Southampton Dept. Archaeol. Monog. 2), Oxford: Oxbow Books, 113-21, 237-42.
King, A. C. 2001 The Romanization of diet in the western Empire: comparative archaeozoological studies, in S. Keay and N. Terrenato (ed.), Italy and the West: comparative issues in Romanization, Oxford, Oxbow Books, 210-23.
King, A. C. 2001 Los huesos animales, in S. Keay, J. Creighton and J. Remesal Rodriguez, Celti (Peñaflor). La arqueologia de una ciudad hispanorromana en la Baetica: prospecciones y excavaciones 1987-1992, Seville: Junta de Andalucia, Consejo de Cultura, 139-47, 295-305.
King, A. C. 2001 Vercingetorix, Asterix and the Gauls: Gallic symbols in French politics and culture, in R. Hingley (ed.), Images of Rome. Perceptions of Ancient Rome in Europe and the United States in the Modern Age (J. Roman Archaeol. Suppl. 44), Portsmouth, RI: Journal of Roman Archaeology, 113-25.
King, A. C. & Soffe, G. 2001 Internal organisation and deposition at the Iron Age temple on Hayling Island, Hampshire, in J. Collis (ed.), Society and Settlement in Iron Age Europe. Actes du XVIIIe Colloque de l'AFEAF, Winchester (April 1994) (Sheffield Archaeol. Monog. 11), Sheffield: J. R. Collis Publications, 111-24.
King, A. C. 2002 Mammals: evidence from wall paintings, sculpture, mosaics, faunal remains, and ancient literary sources, in W. F. Jashemski and F. G. Meyer (ed), The Natural History of Pompeii, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 401-50.
King, A. C. 2002 List of publications by T. F. C. Blagg, pp. v-xi in T. F. C. Blagg, Roman Architectural Ornament in Britain (BAR Brit. Ser. 329), Oxford: British Archaeological Reports.
King, A. C. 2004 Rural settlement in southern Britain: a regional survey, in M. Todd (ed), A Companion to Roman Britain, Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 349-70.
King, A. C. 2004 Infant bones; Mammal bone; Bird bones, in T. Blagg, J. Plouviez and A. Tester, Excavations at a Large Romano-British Settlement at Hacheston, Suffolk, 1973-74 (East Anglian Archaeology 106), Ipswich: Suffolk County Council Archaeological Services, 187-95.
King, A. C. & Millett, M. 2006 The samian pottery, in M. Millett (ed.), Shiptonthorpe, East Yorkshire: archaeological studies of a Romano-British roadside settlement (Yorkshire Archaeological Report 5), Leeds: Yorkshire Archaeological Society/East Riding Archaeological Society, 141-9.
King, A. C. 2007 Romano-Celtic temples in Britain: Gallo-Roman influence or indigenous development?, in R. Haeussler & A. C. King (ed.), Continuity and Innovation in Religion in the Roman West: Vol. 1, archaeological and regional studies, Portsmouth, RI: JRA Supplementary Series, 2 vols.
King, A. C. 2007 Coins and coin-hoards from Romano-Celtic temples in Britain, in R. Haeussler & A. C. King (ed.), Continuity and Innovation in Religion in the Roman West: Vol. 2, numismatic, linguistic and epigraphic studies, Portsmouth, RI: JRA Supplementary Series, 2 vols.
King, A. C. 2007 Characterising assemblages of votive offerings at Romano-Celtic temples in Britain, in M. Hainzmann (ed.), Auf den Spuren keltischer Götterverehung: Akten des 5. Int. F.E.R.C.An-Workshops, Oktober 2003 in Graz, Vienna: Austrian Academy of Sciences.
King, A. C. & Soffe, G. 2007 Hayling Island: a Gallo-Roman temple in Britain, and A bibliography of the Iron Age and Roman temple on Hayling Island, in D. Rudling (ed.), Ritual Landscapes of Roman South-East England, King's Lynn: Heritage Marketing & Publications.
King, A. C. 2007 From villa to village at the Mola di Monte Gelato, Lazio, Italy, in R. and L. Friendship-Taylor (ed.), From Villa to Village - Continuity and Change, King's Lynn: Heritage Marketing & Publications.
Papers in refereed journals
King, A. C. 1975 A medieval town house in German Street, Winchelsea, Sussex Archaeol. Collect. 113, 124-45.
Downey, R., King, A. C. & Soffe, G., 1977 Crop-marks and air photographs of the Roman temple, Hayling Island, Hampshire, Aerial Archaeol. 1, 13-15.
King, A. C. 1978 A comparative survey of bone assemblages from Roman sites in Britain, Bull. Inst. Archaeol. London 15, 207-32.
King, A. C. 1979 Results of aerial reconnaissance in West Sussex, 1976, Sussex Archaeol. Collect. 117, 257.
King, A. C. 1980 A graffito from La Graufesenque and "samia vasa", Britannia 11, 139-43, plus corrigendum, Britannia 12, 1981, 311.
King, A. C. 1983 The Roman church at Silchester reconsidered, Oxford J. Archaeol. 2, 225-37.
King, A. C. & Soffe, G., 1983 A Romano-Celtic temple at Ratham Mill, Funtington, West Sussex, Britannia 14, 264-6.
King, A. C. 1984 The decline of Central Gaulish sigillata manufacture in the early third century, Rei Cretariae Romanae Fautorum Acta 23/24, 51-9.
King, A. C. 1984 Medieval terra sigillata - a source of confusion?, Ulster J. Archaeol. 47, 182-3.
King, A. C. 1988 A classified author and title index to Proceedings 21-40 (1958-1984) and to other Field Club publications issued during the period, Proc. Hampshire Field Club Archaeol. Soc. 44, 137-51.
Potter, T. W. & King, A. C. 1988 Scavi a Mola di Monte Gelato presso Mazzano Romano, Etruria Meridionale: primo rapporto preliminare, Archeologia Medievale 15, 253-311.
Marazzi, F., Potter, T. & King, A. C. 1989 Mola di Monte Gelato (Mazzano Romano - VT): notizie preliminari sulle campagne di scavo 1986-1988 e considerazione sulle origini dell-incastellamento in Etruria meridionale alla luce dei nuovi dati archeologici, Archeologia Medievale 16, 103-19.
King, A. C. & Potter, T. W. 1990 A new domestic building-façade from Roman Britain, J. Roman Archaeol. 3, 195-204.
King, A. C. 1991 Discussion of the decorated samian ware, pp. 42-5, and The samian ware, fig. 28 and MF pp. 68-82 in J. Evans et al., 'Excavations at Chester-le-Street, co. Durham, 1978-1979', Durham Archaeol. J. 7, 5-48, MF.
King, A. C. 1997 A classified author and title index to Proceedings 41-50 (1985-1995) and to other Field Club publications issued during the period, Proc. Hampshire Field Club Archaeol. Soc. 52, 179-92.
King, A. C. & Soffe, G. 1998 Internal organisation and deposition at the Iron Age temple on Hayling Island, Proc. Hampshire Field Club Archaeol Soc. (Hampshire Studies 1998) 53, 35-47.
King, A. C. 1999 Diet in the Roman world: a regional inter-site comparison of the mammal bones, J. Roman Archaeol. 12, 168-202.
Gilkes, O. J., King, A. C. & French, A. 1999 From villa to village: ceramics and Late Antique settlement in the Sabina Tiberina, Archeologia Medievale 26, 269-77.
King, A. C. 2005 Animal remains from temples in Roman Britain, Britannia 36, 329-70.
King, A. C. 2005 A mosaic in western Somerset: Yarford, Somerset, excavations 2003-5, Mosaic 32, 19-22.
King, A. C. 2005 A classified author and title index to Proceedings 51-60 (1996-2005) and to other Field Club publications issued during the period, Proc. Hampshire Field Club Archaeol. Soc. 60, 242-53 (Hampshire Studies 2005).